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July 10th 2017
Animal Genetics will begin offering PRA-prcd testing. Please visit PRA-prcd For more information.

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January, 2016
New performance test available for Pigeons. Please see LDHA-1

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December, 2015
New test available for Horses. Please see Hoof Wall Separation Disease (HWSD)

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April 17, 2012
Animal Genetics publishes 3rd paper on Avian Borna Virus in Avian Diseases. Please contact us for a copy.

Canine Colour Index

Canine Colour Charts

A-Locus (Fawn, Sable, Black-and-Tan/Tricolour, Recessive Black)

Animal Genetics UK currently offers tests for the "Ay" and "a" allele. There is no direct test for the "Aw" or "At" alleles, however, these alleles can often be determined based on phenotype and genotype at other alleles. Dogs can be DNA tested at ANY age.


Smooth and Rough Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs and other are typical adepts for locus A examination. There are two possible coat colours in these breeds: sable and tricolour.

Coat Colour Genotype
Sable ay,ay
Sable (Tricolour hiden) ay,at
Tricolour at,at
Bicolour a,a
Sable (Bicolour hiden) ay,a
Trikolor (Bicolour hiden) at,a

B-Locus (Black, Brown)

The black (B) allele is dominant to the brown (bs, bd, bc) alleles. In this gene are 3 common mutations (bs, bd, bc) which result in brown instead of black eumelanin production. In some breeds additional mutations not identified may affect eumelanin production. Bellow are the known "b" alleles in different breeds of dogs.

Breed Breed colour Two Copies of Allele
Australian Shepherd Red bs, bd
Border Colllie Brown bs, bd, bc
Chesapeake Bay Retriever Brown, Sedge, Deadgrass bs, bc
Chinese Shar-Pei Chocolate, Lilac bs, bc
Cocker Spaniel Brown, Liver bs, bd, bc
Dachshund Chocolate bs, bd
Dalmatian Liver bs, bd, bc
Doberman Pinscher Red bd
English Setter Liver Belton bs
English Springer Spaniel Liver bs, bd
English Pointer Liver bs, bd
Field Spaniel Liver bs, bd, bc
Flatcoated Retriever Liver bs, bd
French Brittany Spaniel Liver bs, bd
German Shorthaired Pointer Liver bs, bd, bc
German Longhaired Pointer Liver bs, bd, bc
German Wirehaired Pointer Liver bs, bd, bc
Italian Greyhound Isabella, Chocolate bc
Labrador Retriever Chocolate bs, bd, bc
Large Munsterlander Brown bs, bd, bc
Newfoundland Brown bs, bd, bc
Poodle Brown, Cafe-au-lait bs, bd, bc
Portuguese Water Dog Brown bs, bd
Pudelpointer Liver bs, bd, bc
Small Munsterlander Brown bs, bc
Weimaraner Mouse-gray bs, bd, bc

E-Locus (Recessive Yellow, Melanistic Mask Allele)

E-Locus and B-Locus - Because TYRP1 is only associated with eumelanin, this mutation only has an effect on coat colour of dogs that are "EE" or "Ee" at the E-locus. Dogs that are "ee" only produce phaeomelanin in their coats, so a mutation at the B locus will not have an effect on their coat colour. However, eumelanin is still produced in the foot pads and noses of dogs which are yellow to red (e/e at MC1R), so the B locus still has an effect on these areas. Dogs that are "eebb" will have a brown nose and foot pads, rather than black. TYRP1 mutations affect the nose and pad colouration, changing it from black to brown. Yellow lab puppies can have black or brown noses, but Vizslas always have brown or flesh coloured noses.

BE

Be

bE

be

BE

BB/EE (pure for black)

BB/Ee (black carrying yellow)

Bb/EE (black carrying brown)

Bb/Ee (black carrying brown and yellow)

Be

BB/Ee (black carrying yellow)

BBee (pure for yellow, black nose)

Bb/Ee (black carrying brown and yellow)

Bb/ee (yellow carrying brown)

bE

BbEE (black carrying brown)

BbEe (black carrying brown and yellow)

bbEE (pure for brown)

bbEe (brown carrying yellow)

be

BbEe (black carrying brown and yellow)

Bbee (yellow carrying brown)

bbEe (brown carrying yellow)

bbee (brown-nosed yellow)

The "ee" genotype can vary in expression between different breeds. In some breeds, the difference between a black or brown dog and a yellow dog is obvious, such as in Labrador Retrievers. However, in other breeds, such as Cocker Spaniels, this difference may be more subtle. Other breeds express the "ee" phenotype as a red colour.

D Locus (Blue, Lilac. Champagne)

The MLPH gene codes for a protein called melanophilin, which is responsible for transporting and fixing melanin-containing cells. A mutation in this gene leads to improper distribution of these cells, causing a dilute coat colour. This mutation is recessive, so two copies of the mutated gene (or "d" allele) are needed to produce the dilute coat colour.

 

The mutation affects both eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments, so black, brown and yellow dogs are all affected by the dilution. However, this effect is more pronounced in black dogs. A dilute black (BB or Bb) dog is generally known as "blue," though names do vary for different breeds, such as "charcoal" or "grey." A diluted chocolate (bb) dog is often referred to as a "lilac" and a diluted yellow (ee) is known as a "champagne."

D Locus and B Locus

The MLPH gene codes for a protein called melanophilin, which is responsible for transporting and fixing melanin-containing cells. A mutation in this gene leads to improper distribution of these cells, causing a dilute coat colour. This mutation is recessive, so two copies of the mutated gene (or "d" allele) are needed to produce the dilute coat colour.


This mutation affects both eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments, so black, brown, and yellow dogs are all affected by the dilution. A dilute black dog is generally known as "blue," though other names do vary for different breeds, such as "charcoal" or "grey."

Chocolate Dilute Basic Colour
B/B D/D Black
B/B d/d Blue
b/b D/D Liver/Chocolate
b/b d/d Faded Liver/Lilac
e/e D/D Yellow
e/e d/d Champagne

(S Locus) Parti, Piebald, or Random White Spotting

There is no single basis for white spotted patterns that occur in animals like cats, dogs and horses. In horses random white spotting, or deletion of colour, has been determined to be caused by more than half a dozen known genetic factors. In more than 25 different dog breeds, a mutation found in a gene called

 

Microphthalmia Associated Transcription Factor- (MITF) is associated with a piebald spotting. In many breeds piebald behaves as a dosage-dependent trait. This means that dogs with a single copy (Sn) of the MITF variant will express a limited white spotting pattern, while dogs that have 2 copies (SS) of the variant will exhibit more white with very little color. In some breeds dogs that are (SS) are completely white while dogs that are (Sn) have what is referred to as mantle.

Breed Breed Colour  
Basset Hound Parti  
Beagle Parti  
Border Collie Piebald  
Boxer White or Flash  
Bulldog - English Piebald  
Bulldog - French Piebald  
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel White  
Chihuahua Piebald  
Chinese Shar-Pei Flowered  
Cocker Spaniel - America Parti  
Cocker Spaniel - English Parti  
German Shepard Piebald  
Dachshund Longhaired Piebald  
Dachshund Smooth Piebald  
Dachshund Wirehaired Piebald  
French Brittany Spaniel Parti  
German Shorthaired Pointer and White  
German Longhaired Pointer and White  
German Wirehaired Pointer and White  
Goldendoodle Parti  
Havana Silk Parti  
Havanese Parti  
Labradoodle Parti  
Newfoundland Landseer  
Pointer and White  
Poodle Parti  
Portuguese water dog Parti  
Shar Pei Flowered  
Saint Bernard Piebald  
Whippet Spotted  
Yorkshire Terrier Parti